Notes on Networking Concepts By Tanuja Banerjee, Computer teacher St. Anne’s Girls” High School
Notes on Networking Concepts
A group of computers and other peripheral devices that are linked together for the purpose of sharing data and hardware resources is called computer network.
Advantages of Network
- Sharing of hardware- Network shares expensive resources and reduces the operational and maintenance cost.
- Sharing of software- Sharing of software saves cost of licensing on each machine.
- Fast and efficient communication- Network offers a fast and reliable communication channel among the users.
- Security- As the server of the organization is fully secured against unauthorized access. The relevant data and files are fully protected and only accessible to authorized users
- Reducing redundancy- A network reduces the need for hard copies of all documents. By sharing files over the network, the need to share paper copies of reports or any other information can be eliminated or greatly reduced.
- Saving time and cost- Sharing of data and information through network saves both time as well as cost of paper.
- Efficiency- Deletion, modification or upgradation of software or data at a single point brings more efficiency and effectiveness into a working system.
Server- It is a powerful computer or a set of computers with high speed and great processing capability. It can link many electronic devices together and provide important network services to private and public users.
Client- Client is a computer or device which uses the network to access any service from the server. A client is also called a Node.
Network Interface Card (NIC)- It is a hardware component which connects a computer to a network. It also provides a unique physical address known as Media Access Control (MAC) address to each computer connected to the network. There are two types of NICs-Wired NIC &Wireless NIC
Medium of connection- The interconnection between individual devices can be established in two ways- Through wires/cables OR Through wireless medium
Ethernet Twisted Pair- It is most common and widely used wire in Local Area Network. Modern Ethernet networks use twisted pair cable containing eight wires. these wires are arranged in special order, and an RJ-45 connector is crimped at both the ends of the cable.
Coaxial Cable- It is also known as Coax started being induced in around 1920s in the telephony networks. It contains a copper wire also cable.
Optical Fiber- It is a flexible and transparent strand of glass which is capable of transmitting light between two ends of the fiber. It uses light pulses instead of electrical pulses for information transmission.
Switch and Router- When a network has more than two computers, then we need a central point of connection through which all the computers are connected on a network.
- Switch- In wired networking computers are connected by switches.
- Router- In wireless networking Routers are used to transmit radio signals.
Modem- MODEM stands for Modulator Demodulator. It modulates the digital data into analog signal and demodulates analog signal back into digital signal. In simple words we can say that modem is used to connect computer via telephone lines.-